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Investigation: Bradley Wiggins won Tour de France using drug without medical need

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LONDON (AP) — Bradley Wiggins used a banned powerful corticosteroid to enhance his performance while preparing to win the Tour de France in 2012, a British parliamentary committee said in a doping investigation report that accuses Team Sky of crossing an “ethical line” after preaching zero tolerance.

The legislators said they received evidence that shows Team Sky sought a therapeutic use exemption (TUE) for Wiggins to take triamcinolone “not to treat medical need” — asthma — “but to improve his power to weight ratio.”

“We believe this powerful corticosteroid was being used to prepare Bradley Wiggins, and possibly other riders supporting him, for the (2012) Tour de France,” the House of Commons select committee said in the report published Monday. “He benefited from the performance-enhancing properties of this drug during the race.”

In a statement, Wiggins denied “any drug was used without medical need.” Team Sky defended its reputation in a statement criticizing “the anonymous and potentially malicious claim” by members of parliament.

But the report from a committee established in 2015 to investigate doping casts doubt on the team’s use of medication and failure to keep accurate medical records.

Team Sky general manager “David Brailsford must take responsibility for these failures, the regime under which Team Sky riders trained and competed and the damaging skepticism about the legitimacy of his team’s performance and accomplishments,” the report states.

The report also accused IAAF President Sebastian Coe of misleading the parliamentary inquiry into doping.

It was critical of Coe’s responses to questions regarding how much he knew about doping within track and field before the problems were revealed by investigative journalists and whistle-blowers.

The committee suggested Coe could have acted sooner to clean up the sport while he served as vice president of the international track and field federation until 2015, when he won an election to succeed Lamine Diack as president.



Brailsford, who directed Britain’s breakthrough success at the 2008 Beijing Olympics, established Team Sky in 2009 with the financial backing of satellite broadcaster Sky, whose largest shareholder is Rupert Murdoch’s 21st Century Fox. The stated mission was to cleanly produce Britain’s first Tour de France champion as cycling was trying to rebuild its reputation after years of scandals.

The publication of the parliamentary report comes with Team Sky’s four-time Tour de France champion, Chris Froome, under investigation by cycling’s world governing body for failing a doping test. Froome has been ordered to explain why a urine sample he provided at the Spanish Vuelta in September showed a concentration of the asthma drug salbutamol at twice the permitted level. Froome denies any wrongdoing.

Wiggins was Team Sky’s first Tour de France champion, emerging victorious in 2012 before cementing his status as Britain’s most decorated Olympian at the 2016 Rio de Janeiro Games by taking his haul to eight medals before retiring.

Tour de France organizers told The Associated Press on Sunday that they have no comment to make on the issue.



Investigations into Wiggins began later in 2016 following a leak to a newspaper about a medical package delivered to the rider at the 2011 Dauphine Libere race in France, a key pre-Tour event. The mystery deepened as Team Sky declined for two months to say what substance was in the bag dispatched from the shared British Cycling-Team Sky medical facility in Manchester.

There was no paper trail or written evidence to substantiate a claim by Brailsford that the product couriered was Fluimucil, a brand name for a legal decongestant containing acetylcysteine used for clearing mucus. The committee now says that Team Sky doctor Richard Freeman, who failed to log Wiggins’ use of an unlicensed product, can no longer confirm it was Fluimucil and he was “the only reported source of this information.”

The U.K. Anti-Doping Agency said in November that its investigation into whether the product was in fact the corticosteroid triamcinolone was hampered by a lack of accurate medical records but it decided not to issue charges. UKAD said it would re-open the investigation if new evidence emerged.



The parliamentary committee said it received material from a “well-placed and respected source” about the use of triamcinolone, specifically that “Wiggins was using these drugs beyond the requirement for any TUE,” which allows athletes to use otherwise-banned substances because of a verified medical need.

Wiggins and a smaller group of riders trained away from the rest of Team Sky while preparing for the 2012 season, according to the legislators, who report: “The source said they were all using corticosteroids out of competition to lean down in preparation for the major races that season.”

The digital, culture, media and sports select committee said it was told in writing by Wiggins’ former coach, Shane Sutton, that “what Brad was doing was unethical but not against the rules” by taking triamcinolone.



A leak by the Russian-linked hackers Fancy Bears in 2016 showed that Wiggins gained a therapeutic use exemption to have the anti-inflammatory drug triamcinolone injected on three specific occasions before the 2011 and 2012 Tours and the 2013 Giro D’Italia.

The British legislators found the TUE system was “open to abuse” by using products “to achieve a peak level of physical condition in the athlete, rather than returning them to a normal state of health.”

While Wiggins’ use of a TUE “does not constitute a violation of the WADA code,” the report said, “it does cross the ethical line that David Brailsford says he himself drew for Team Sky.

“In this case, and contrary to the testimony of David Brailsford in front of the committee, we believe that drugs were being used by Team Sky, within the WADA rules, to enhance the performance of riders, and not just to treat medical need.”

TUEs were granted up to 2014 based on the assessment by a doctor from both the team and the World Anti-Doping Agency. Now a TUE committee of independent medics gives approval.

“The TUE system needs to be kept under permanent review, but the question inevitably remains, that if an athlete is so ill that they can only compete using a drug that is otherwise banned during competition, then why are they competing at all?” the legislators wrote.

The committee called on WADA to introduce a complete ban on the use of corticosteroids and the painkiller Tramadol by athletes.



Team Sky said it remained committed to allowing riders to “do it clean.” But the parliamentary report said claims by Team Sky coaches and managers that they were largely unaware of the medical methods “seem incredible, and inconsistent with their original aim of ‘winning clean,’ and maintaining the highest ethical standards.”

“How can David Brailsford ensure that his team is performing to his requirements, if he does not know and cannot tell what drugs the doctors are giving the riders?” the committee report added.

Wiggins has previously said he sought permission to use triamcinolone to treat his asthma to ensure he was “back on a level playing field” with competitors rather than to seek an unfair advantage.

Discussing the parliamentary report, Wiggins said on Monday: “I find it so sad that accusations can be made, where people can be accused of things they have never done which are then regarded as facts. I strongly refute the claim that any drug was used without medical need.”

Team Sky said it had already addressed the need to strengthen medical record keeping and denounced any suggestions they deceived the system as “unfair both to the team and to the riders.” The team denied a “serious claim that medication has been used by the team to enhance performance.”

“The report also includes an allegation of widespread Triamcinolone use by Team Sky riders ahead of the 2012 Tour de France,” the team statement said. “Again, we strongly refute this allegation.”



British Cycling said the “failures” identified by the parliamentary report had already been addressed by an overhaul prompted by evidence heard in public hearings. The sport’s national governing body said there are now “clear boundaries and distinctions” between them and Team Sky, with no one simultaneously employed by both organizations.

Freeman, who held dual roles as doctor at Team Sky and British Cycling between 2009 and 2015, is being investigated by the General Medical Council, which is responsible for the behavior of medical practitioners.

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Roger Bannister, first to run sub-4-minute mile, dies at 88

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LONDON (AP) — Roger Bannister, the first runner to break the 4-minute barrier in the mile, has died. He was 88.

Bannister’s family said in a statement that he died peacefully on Saturday in Oxford, the English city where the runner cracked the feat many had thought humanly impossible on a windy afternoon in 1954.

Bannister, who went on to pursue a long and distinguished medical career, had been slowed by Parkinson’s disease in recent years.

He was “surrounded by his family who were as loved by him, as he was loved by them,” the family said in a statement announcing his death on Sunday. “He banked his treasure in the hearts of his friends.”

British Prime Minister Theresa May remembered Bannister as a “British sporting icon whose achievements were an inspiration to us all. He will be greatly missed.”

Helped by two pacemakers, Bannister clocked 3 minutes, 59.4 seconds over four laps at Oxford’s Iffley Road track on May 6, 1954, to break the 4-minute mile — a test of speed and endurance that stands as one of the defining sporting achievements of the 20th century.

“It’s amazing that more people have climbed Mount Everest than have broken the 4-minute mile,” Bannister said in an interview with The Associated Press in 2012.

The enduring image of the lanky Oxford medical student — head tilted back, eyes closed and mouth agape as he strained across the finishing tape — captured the public’s imagination, made him a global celebrity and lifted the spirits of Britons still suffering through postwar austerity.

“It became a symbol of attempting a challenge in the physical world of something hitherto thought impossible,” Bannister said as he approached the 50th anniversary of the feat. “I’d like to see it as a metaphor not only for sport, but for life and seeking challenges.”

He might not have set the milestone but for the disappointment of finishing without a medal in the 1500m, known as the metric mile, in the 1952 Olympics in Helsinki. Instead of retiring from the sport, he decided to chase the 4-minute mark.

Swedish runner Gundar Haegg’s mile time of 4:01.4 had stood for nine years, but in 1954 Bannister, Australian rival John Landy and others were threatening to break it.

“As it became clear that somebody was going to do it, I felt that I would prefer it to be me,” Bannister told the AP.

He also wanted to deliver something special for his country.

“I thought it would be right for Britain to try to get this,” Bannister said. “There was a feeling of patriotism. Our new queen had been crowned the year before, Everest had been climbed in 1953. Although I tried in 1953, I broke the British record, but not the 4-minute mile, and so everything was ready in 1954.”

His chance finally came on a wet, cool, blustery May afternoon during a meet between Oxford and the Amateur Athletic Association.

When Bannister looked up at the English flag whipping in the wind atop a nearby church, he feared he would have to call off the record attempt. But, shortly before 6 p.m., the wind died down. The race was on.

With Chris Brasher setting the pace on the cinder track, they ran a first lap in 57.5 seconds, then 60.7 — 1:58.2 for the half mile. Chris Chataway, a distance specialist, paced a third lap of 62.3 — 3:00.4. Bannister would need to run the final lap in 59 seconds.

With 250 yards to go, Bannister surged past Chataway, his long arms and legs pumping and his lungs gasping for oxygen.

“The world seemed to stand still, or did not exist,” he wrote in his book, “The First Four Minutes.”

“The only reality was the next 200 yards of track under my feet. The tape meant finality — extinction perhaps. I felt at that moment that it was my chance to do one thing supremely well. I drove on, impelled by a combination of fear and pride.”

After Bannister crossed the finish line, the announcer read out the time: “3…” The rest was drowned out by the roar of the crowd.

The record lasted just 46 days, as Landy ran 3:57.9 in Turku, Finland, on June 21, 1954. That set the stage for the showdown between Bannister and Landy at the Empire Games, now called the Commonwealth Games, in Vancouver, British Columbia on Aug. 9, 1954.

Landy set a fast pace, leading by as much as 15 yards before Bannister caught up as the bell rang for the final lap.

“Around the last bend, I think the crowd was making so much noise he couldn’t hear whether I was behind, or whether he’d dropped me, and he looked over his left shoulder, and I passed him on his right shoulder,” Bannister said.

Bannister won the race in 3:58.8, with Landy second in 3:59. It was the first time two men had run under 4 minutes in the same race.

Bannister considered that victory even more satisfying than the first 4-minute mile because it came in a competitive race against his greatest rival.

Bannister capped his brilliant summer of 1954 by winning the 1500m at the European Championships in Bern, Switzerland, in a games record of 3:43.8.

Bannister, who was chosen as Sports Illustrated’s first Sportsman of the Year in 1954, retired from competition and pursued a full-time career in neurology. As chairman of the Sports Council between 1971 and 1974, he developed the first test for anabolic steroids.

“None of my athletics was the greatest achievement,” he said. “My medical work has been my achievement and my family with 14 grandchildren. Those are real achievements.”

IAAF President Sebastian Coe said Bannister’s death represented a “day of intense sadness both for our nation and for all of us in athletics.”

Coe ran a mile in a world record 3 minutes, 47.33 seconds in 1981 between winning gold medals in the 1500m at the 1980 and 1984 Olympics.

“There is not a single athlete of my generation who was not inspired by Roger and his achievements both on and off the track,” Coe tweeted.

Bannister also served as master of Oxford’s Pembroke College from 1985-93.

Bannister married Moyra Jacobsson, an artist, in 1955. They had two sons and two daughters and lived in a modest home only minutes away from the track where he made history.

Bannister outlived his 4-minute mile pacemakers: Brasher, who founded the London Marathon, died in 2003 at the age of 74. Chataway died in 2014 at 82.

Chris Froome: ‘Wealth of information’ shows I’m no cheater

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LONDON (AP) — Chris Froome’s renewed protestations of innocence on Thursday were accompanied by doubts about why the four-time Tour de France champion was not immediately suspended for failing a drug test.

Froome was ordered to explain to the International Cycling Union why a urine sample he provided at the Vuelta a España in September showed a concentration of the asthma drug salbutamol that was twice the permitted level.

While accepting the case is “damaging” for a sport scarred for years by doping scandals, Froome maintained Team Sky has the evidence to prove he is not guilty of cheating.

“I know that within me fundamentally I have followed the protocol and I have not overstepped any boundaries,” Froome said, “and I hope by the end of this process that will be clear to everyone and I’ll be exonerated of any wrongdoing.”

Froome offered a defense of his integrity in an interview with Sky, the broadcaster that owns his cycling team.

“I am being tested every single day of the race that I am in the leader’s jersey, I knew I was being tested,” Froome said. “We also have a wealth of information from within the team of what I ate every single day, how many times I have stopped to pee every day.

“The detail of the information that we have been able to provide is vast.”

Sky and the UCI confirmed Froome’s failed test early Wednesday in response to media reports.

Rival German rider Tony Martin, the 2012 Olympic time trial silver medalist, said he believed something was amiss with the UCI’s handling of the case.

“I am totally angry,” was posted on the four-time world champion’s Facebook. “There is definitely a double standard being applied in the Christopher Froome case. Other athletes are suspended immediately after a positive test. He and his team are given time by the UCI to explain it all. I do not know of any similar case in the recent past. That is a scandal, and he should at least not have been allowed to appear in the world championships.

“Not only the public but also I have immediately the impression that there is wheeling and dealing going on behind the scenes, agreements are being made and ways are being sought as to how to get out of this case. Do he and his team enjoy a special status?”

The UCI did not immediately respond to a request for comment about its actions, which Martin denounced as a “major blow to the difficult anti-doping fight.”

“We need a (consistent) and transparent approach by the UCI,” was posted on Martin’s Facebook. “What is going on here is (inconsistent), not transparent, unprofessional and unfair. Our credibility is at stake!”

Sky said Froome had to take an increased dosage of salbutamol without exceeding the permissible dose after experiencing “acute asthma symptoms” during the final week of the Spanish Vuelta, which he won.

Salbutamol helps expand lung capacity and can be used as a performance-enhancing drug to increase endurance.

Commonly marketed as Ventolin, salbutamol is classified as a beta-2 agonist and WADA allows it to be taken through inhalation only, in limited amounts.

“It’s sad seeing the misconceptions that are out there about athletes & salbutamol use,” was posted on Froome’s Twitter. “My hope is that this doesn’t prevent asthmatic athletes from using their inhalers in emergency situations for fear of being judged. It is not something to be ashamed of.”

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