Philip Hersh

10 things we’ve learned halfway through the Grand Prix figure skating season

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With the senior Grand Prix series at its halfway point and skaters heading for Chonqing, China for the fourth of six “regular season” events, here are 10 things we’ve learned from the series so far:

WOMEN

1. The kiddie corps of Russian women has been even better than expected – and expectations were very high.

Anna Shcherbakova, 15, Alexandra Trusova, 15, and Alena Kostornaia, 16, each has easily won gold in the first three events. Shcherbakova took Skate America by 10-plus points; Trusova won Skate Canada by 10-plus points over reigning Grand Prix Final champion Rika Kihira of Japan; and Kostornaia took Grand Prix France by nearly 20 points over reigning world and Olympic champion Alina Zagitova of Russia.

It is likely that only Kihira, at the season-ending NHK Trophy in Japan, can prevent Russian women from sweeping gold in the six events. That has happened in only one of the four Grand Prix disciplines; Russian men swept in 1998-99 and 1999-00, an era when some skaters did three events instead of the current two.

The three young Russian women have posted the three highest free skate scores in the two seasons of the revised scoring system.

2. The jump revolution in women’s skating, with quads and triple Axels, has had a bigger and faster impact than expected – even though women cannot do quads in the short program.

Trusova’s four quad attempts (three clean) helped her wipe out Kihira’s 7.95-point edge after the short program at Skate Canada. Shcherbakova’s two clean quad Lutzes carried her from fourth after the short (7.5 points from first) to the title at Skate America. Kostornaia’s three triple Axels (even the one under-rotated in the short) were difference-makers in France.

And these stats, courtesy of skatingscores.com: Four women – Trusova, Shcherbakova and juniors Kamila Valieva of Russia and Alysa Liu of the United States, the latter two winners of two Junior Grand Prix events each this season – have done 19 jumps credited as quads in international events (including the free skate-only Japan Open) this season. There had been only 22 other jumps called quads in the previous history of the sport.

The success rate for women’s quads is the big change: Last season, just five of the 16 jumps called quads got a positive Grade of Execution (another got a neutral 0.0). This season, 16 of the 19 jumps have positive GOEs – 12 of them at 2.30 or higher.

3. Mariah Bell’s two strong skates in France produced the second Grand Prix medal of her career, a bronze (after her silver at Skate America in 2016).

More striking: Bell never lost her focus and made no significant mistakes, as she frequently had in the past, and she beat Zagitova in the free skate. Yet it still seems unlikely (but not impossible) that either Bell or Bradie Tennell, second and fourth at her two events, will be the first U.S. woman to qualify for the Grand Prix Final since Ashley Wagner in 2015. Bell’s second event is Rostelecom Cup in mid-November.

MEN

4. Two-time men’s Olympic champion Yuzuru Hanyu of Japan, the sport’s superstar, may be heading for an even higher level of brilliance if his performance at Skate Canada is any indication.

Hanyu’s skating was his finest ever in his Grand Prix season debut. Clean in a two-quad short program, one minor mistake in a four-quad free skate, full of passion and competitive fire, this was a Hanyu asking “Can you top this?” to rival Nathan Chen, winner of the last two world titles.

5. The answer? Chen could not top it – so far.

In finishing first in all four programs at his two Grand Prix events, taking gold in both by a mile, Chen extended his Grand Prix winning streak to eight (including two wins at the Final) and became the first man to qualify for this season’s Final. But just one of his four performances (the short at Skate America) was clean.

Of course, Chen had an even messier Grand Prix record last season, but he improved in each event before lights-out, landmark performances at the U.S. and world championships.

6. All skating fans should keep their fingers crossed for a Hanyu-Chen meeting at the Grand Prix Final, since Hanyu missed the last two with foot injuries. Hanyu’s second event is the series finale (NHK in Sapporo) three weekends from now.

7. Hanyu and Chen are now light years ahead of the rest of the men in the world.

Reigning Olympic silver medalist Shoma Uno of Japan is struggling, reigning world bronze medalist Vincent Zhou of the U.S. is sitting out the Grand Prix to concentrate on his first semester of college, and eye-catching Kevin Aymoz of France is a year or two from international title contention.

PAIRS

8. Few would have foreseen heading into the season that three young Russian couples, Daria Pavliuchenko and Denis Khodykin (ages 16 and 20), Aleksandra Boikova and Dmitri Kozlovski (17 and 19) and Anastasia Mishina and Aleksandr Galliamov (18 and 20) would take command of the pair scene so far.

Call it making hay while the sun shines (and the veteran teams haven’t – yet). Reigning world champions Sui Wenjing and Han Cong (24 and 27) of China make their season debut this week at Cup of China. Reigning Grand Prix Final and European champions Vanessa James and Morgan Cipres (32 and 28) are taking the long view at contending for a 2022 Olympic medal by skipping this season’s Grand Prix for a mental and physical break. Reigning world silver medalists Yevgenia Tarasova and Vladimir Morozov (24 and 27) slogged to third at their first competition.

And a veteran U.S. couple, Haven Denney and Brandon Frazier (24 and 26), have stepped into the open space with two second-place free skates to get bronze medals and, if results are jumbled enough the next three weeks, have a shot at a spot in the Final. Only one U.S. pair has made it in the past 11 seasons (Alexa Scimeca Knierim and Chris Knierim in 2015.)

ICE DANCE

9. It is no surprise that there is the team Gabriella Papadakis and Guillaume Cizeron of France, first at the Grand Prix of France, and then there is everyone else. Their “Fame” rhythm dance is disco delight, goofy costumes included, even if it is better in execution than conception. The spoken passages in their free dance are more distraction than enhancement. But the skating – oh, the skating. The attention to detail, the synchronicity, flow, edge work. They are prohibitive favorites to win Olympic gold in 2022.

10. What a battle there should be at 2020 Worlds in Montreal for the silver and bronze medals in dance. Piper Gilles and Paul Poirier of Canada threw themselves into the mix with a Skate Canada upset of Madison Hubbell and Zach Donohue of the U.S. (Hubbell and Donohue are reigning Grand Prix Final champions and world bronze medalists who have won medals in 13 straight series events.)

Madison Chock and Evan Bates of the U.S., looking for their first worlds medal since 2016 after 11 straight medals on the Grand Prix, were a solid second behind Papadakis and Cizeron in France. Reigning world silver medalists Viktoria Sinitsina and Nikita Katsalapov of Russia make their Grand Prix season debut this week. Charlene Guignard and Marco Fabbri of Italy are contenders, as are Aleksandra Stepanova and Ivan Bukin of Russia. Musical chairs dance, anyone?

Philip Hersh, who has covered figure skating at the last 11 Winter Olympics, is a special contributor to NBCSports.com/figure-skating.

MORE: Will Nathan Chen return to six quad jumps in his free skate?

As a reminder, you can watch the events from the 2019-20 figure skating season live and on-demand with the ‘Figure Skating Pass’ on NBC Sports Gold. Go to NBCsports.com/gold/figure-skating to sign up for access to every ISU Grand Prix and championship event, as well as domestic U.S. Figure Skating events throughout the season. NBC Sports Gold gives subscribers an unprecedented level of access on more platforms and devices than ever before.

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Tessa Virtue, Scott Moir pushed ice dance boundaries throughout exemplary career

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The announcement was hardly unexpected, so much so that it created little buzz even on figure skating news groups.

After all, no one thought Canadians Tessa Virtue and Scott Moir would be extending their extraordinary competitive career after taking another post-Olympic leave from the sport with yet another Olympic ice dance medal (this one a second gold) on their résumé.

And retirement is what they in fact confirmed last week.

Yet there was part of me that hoped they would come back again, especially with this season’s world championships not only in their own country but also in the same city, Montreal, as their training base before the PyeongChang Olympics.

Whether they won another world medal or not in Montreal – and a recommitted Virtue and Moir were very likely to be on the podium, if not atop it – the couple would have been awash in deserved acclaim from the home crowd, as they were in winning their first Olympic title in Vancouver in 2010 with a free dance that left me spellbound then and does the same in every re-viewing.

There will undoubtedly be some celebration of Virtue and Moir’s career as they perform on the Rock the Rink tour that begins Oct. 5 in British Columbia and meanders across Canada (with one stop in Cleveland) for nearly two months, playing mainly smaller arenas in smaller cities.

It would be more fitting if they could play the big stage, the 2020 world meet at the Bell Centre in Montreal. Maybe add them to the lineup for the gala? Skate Canada would say only they will have a role at this season’s worlds.

I had done interviews last year in PyeongChang to write an appreciation for Virtue and Moir after they won two more gold medals, team and individual, but that idea hit the digital dead letter file when the women’s singles event generated an avalanche of storylines.

Now, with the confirmation of their retirement, it’s time to use some of those interviews and the history-making achievements on their record to convey and appreciate their singular excellence.

*By the numbers: Virtue and Moir are one of two teams to win two Olympic ice dance golds, one of two to win three medals (gold-silver-gold; the other team, Marina Klimova and Sergei Ponomarenko of the Soviet Union, won bronze-silver-gold.) With two team event medals, silver and gold, Virtue and Moir have a record five Olympic figure skating medals.

In 2010, they were the youngest to win Olympic ice dance gold and the first Olympic dance champions from outside Europe. In 2018, he was the fourth-oldest man, she the third-oldest woman to win ice dance gold. They had competed against their final coaches, Marie-France Dubreuil and Patrice Lauzon, at Skate Canada in … 2006.

*British ice dance team Penny Coomes and Nicholas Buckland used their 2018 Olympic short dance as homage to their compatriots, Jayne Torvill and Christopher Dean, who dazzled the world with their innovative, thematic programs en route to the 1984 Olympic gold medal. Coomes and Buckland see Virtue and Moir’s skating as an extension of what Torvill and Dean had done.

“Torvill and Dean reinvigorated ice dance and took it to a place nobody had ever seen,” Coomes said. “Tessa and Scott have picked up that ball and carried it a little further.”

In the mid-1980s, there were few written rules governing ice dance, so Torvill and Dean revised the unwritten rules about programs that had left the discipline in predictable stasis.

By the time Virtue and Moir began senior international competition in fall 2006, the International Skating Union had implemented a scoring and judging system that codified everything, including ice dance.

Then a big piece of the new rules changed after 2010, with the compulsory dances eliminated. Virtue and Moir simply adapted.

“When the new judging system was introduced, you saw a lot of couples do the same things on the ice,” Coomes said. “Tessa and Scott took the rules and expanded them. Rather than stick in the box, they reached outside the box and grabbed new and innovative ideas.”

Some were in lifts created by Igor Shpilband, one of the coaches who helped them win the 2010 Olympic gold. Others came from their ability to use their surpassing skating skills to create corporeal unison that allowed two bodies to assume the moving shape of one. They were artists and technicians.

Their relationship in performance was so close and complete, especially in romantic programs, that many assumed, incorrectly, they were a couple off the ice as well.

As my colleague Lynn Rutherford wrote during her valedictory to Virtue and Moir: “Skating to the tender music from ‘The Umbrellas of Cherbourg’ or Gustav Mahler’s haunting ‘Adagietto,’ Virtue and Moir could break your heart as easily as they could spin off perfect twizzles.”

The Mahler-based free dance at the 2010 Olympics, to a piece of his Fifth Symphony, is Virtue and Moir’s transcendent masterpiece. As I wrote that night in the Chicago Tribune, they had an “exquisite interpretation … subtly underscoring the emotional power of the music and still managing eye-catching lifts and pirouettes and a striking final position worthy of ballet.”

As a whole, it was a magnificent exercise in understatement, the brilliance of simplicity, down to the costumes – she in a gossamer, white dress with some sequins from waist to shoulders, he in a white tuxedo shirt and black pants. Even in their most powerful moments of that program, what you remember is not the difficulty of the moves but the positions of their arms and bodies, of two people expressing themselves as one.

Then there was the Latin-themed short dance in 2018, an apparently incompatible mash up of “Sympathy for the Devil,” “Hotel California,” and “Oye Como Va.” Virtue and Moir made it a stunningly seamless integration of the very different music by the Rolling Stones, the Eagles and Santana, performing with so much emotional and physical energy, such sassy body heat and such finesse that their scores would allow them to take gold despite losing the free dance.

“I think Tessa and Scott have such a vast range of body of work, it’s possible for every fan and every skating person to find some program they love,” said Carol Lane, a longtime ice dance coach and Canadian TV commentator. “My favorite thing is a short dance to ‘Tears on My Pillow.’”

Virtue and Moir did that in 2004, when she was 14 years old and he 16, when they were still rising through juniors after seven years skating together.

They would compete together over a span of 21 years, so long that they would have two sets of formidable major rivals at the senior level – Meryl Davis and Charlie White of the United States until 2014; Gabriella Papadakis and Guillaume Cizeron of France after that. Coincidentally, Virtue and Moir trained in the same rink under the same coaches with first the U.S. team and then the French team while they were competing against each for Olympic and world titles.

The Canadians beat Davis and White for gold in 2010, lost to them in 2014, then beat Papadakis and Cizeron for gold in 2018. The three couples won nine of the past 10 world titles – three by Virtue and Moir, who skated in just five of those 10.

“Think back to Vancouver, the acrobatics they brought, the level of technical difficulty they brought … it was unheard of,” NBC Sports analyst and 2006 Olympic ice dance silver medalist Tanith White said. “Now [the 2018 Olympics] to see them incorporate back in the element of dance – it sounds silly, to put dance in ice dance – to bring in that musicality, that flexibility in their movement. That truly set it apart from anything anyone else is doing.”

*It only seems that Virtue and Moir rolled easily from one triumph to another during their careers.

Their move from Canada and Canadian coaches to suburban Detroit to train with demanding Russian émigrés Shpilband and Marina Zoueva in summer 2004 was fraught with teenage angst (she was 15, he 17) in an atmosphere Moir would describe as cold in a 2015 TED talk. From 2008 through 2010, Virtue battled compartment syndrome that would require surgery in each of those years and severely curtailed her training immediately before their first Olympics.

And then there was the comeback after a two-year hiatus following the 2014 Olympics.

“We would be lying if we said we were just coming back to be part of the pack,” Moir said when they announced the return. “That’s definitely not the goal.”

The goal was to challenge Papadakis and Cizeron, who had used the Canadians’ absence to establish themselves as the world’s dominant ice dance team with world titles in 2015 and 2016. Despite losing the free dance, they beat the French for the 2017 World title, but just three months before the 2018 Olympics, the French beat Virtue and Moir in both programs at the Grand Prix Final.

It was just another challenge for them to overcome, even if it involved near complete revision before the Olympics of their free dance program to “Moulin Rouge.” The improvements were enough to cut the free dance point gap with the French in half from the Grand Prix Final to the Olympics. That was the difference between silver and gold.

“They are a team that has always gone for it,” said U.S. Olympic ice dancer Madison Hubbell, who trained with Virtue and Moir from 2016 to 2018. “They never seem to play it safe with their elements, with how difficult they make their programs. They always want to be better and they don’t compare themselves with other teams.”

The record books tell us Virtue and Moir had unsurpassed success. They slipped away quietly from the sport in which they are among the greatest ever. Their incomparable skating already has passed the test of time.

Philip Hersh, who has covered figure skating at the last 11 Winter Olympics, is a special contributor to NBCSports.com/figure-skating.

MORE: Tessa Virtue, Scott Moir retire from ice dance competition

As a reminder, you can watch the events from the 2019-20 figure skating season live and on-demand with the ‘Figure Skating Pass’ on NBC Sports Gold. Go to NBCsports.com/gold/figure-skating to sign up for access to every ISU Grand Prix and championship event, as well as domestic U.S. Figure Skating events throughout the season. NBC Sports Gold gives subscribers an unprecedented level of access on more platforms and devices than ever before.

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Quad revolution comes in force to women’s figure skating

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No word is more fitting to describe dramatic change in singles figure skating than revolution.

Two of the discipline’s three elements, jumps and spins, involve revolving in the air or on the ice. The third element, footwork, often includes pirouettes of one or more turns.

And the dramatic change this season is a female revolution based on a single additional turn.

Young women are turning the quadruple jump into a key element of singles skating, pushing the technical side of their discipline forward at a pace that seemed unimaginable only three years ago.

It is far too early to tell where this will take the sport’s leading ladies. To quintuple jumps? Hip replacements? Olympic and senior world titles? A sport dominated by willowy young teens? Ephemeral brilliance rather than memorably long-lived excellence?

Suffice it to say that the present includes future shock for a sport that seems to be moving ever further from its past as ballet on ice and turning into a form of gymnastics on ice.

And, as the 19th Century American orator Wendell Phillips put it, “Revolutions never go backward.”

At this moment, with the Junior Grand Prix and Challenger Series seasons underway, the best evidence about what women’s skating might soon resemble comes from numbers and statements and videos that show the increasing emphasis on quads.

After all, two-time world champion and Olympic silver medalist Yevgenia Medvedeva of Russia, who turns 20 in November, talks of adding a quad Salchow.

And two-time U.S. champion Gracie Gold, trying to come back at age 24 after two seasons in which she competed just once, has practiced quads in a harness, as seen in videos posted by her coach.

“The way things are going, it is going to be very difficult for female skaters who don’t have these quads to compete for a medal,” said NBC Sports analyst Tara Lipinski, the 1998 Olympic champion. “No one inherently likes change, and this is going to be such a drastic change. I wonder how are you going to balance what figure skating is, the balance between technical and artistic, which has been a problem in our sport forever. This a period of change, and everything seems exaggerated during that time period.”

Until 2018, just one woman, Miki Ando of Japan, had been given credit for landing a quad in a significant national or international competition. Ando did that in the 2002 Junior Grand Prix Final, in an era when the scoring system did not reflect whether a jump was done cleanly, which is to say with a positive grade of execution.

From then until late summer 2017, no woman is known to have even tried a quad in such a competition – Grand Prix, Junior Grand Prix, national championship, junior and senior world championship, regional championship, Olympics.

At the 2018 World Junior Championships, Alexandra Trusova of Russia, then 13, won the title and gave a preview of coming attractions by cleanly landing a quad toe loop and a quad Salchow in the free skate.

(For the purposes of this discussion, “cleanly” means a positive or neutral grade of execution.)

Russian Alexandra Trusova, 15, brings quadruple jumps to her senior international debut this week. (Getty Images)

Last season, according to skatingscores.com, three women – Trusova, compatriot Anna Shcherbakova and Kazakh Elizabet Tursynbaeva went clean on eight of an aggregate 19 quad attempts.

Tursynbaeva’s quad Salchow at the world championships was the first by a senior woman and helped her earn the silver medal.

Two of Trusova’s six clean quads last season opened a quad-triple combination; another was a quad Lutz, the most difficult quad done by men or women.

Barely a month into this season, three skaters – Shcherbakova, 15, a first-year senior, and juniors Kamila Valieva, 13, of Russia and Alysa Liu, 14, of the United States – have landed clean quads. They include two toe loops by Valieva and quad Lutzes by Liu and Shcherbakova.

Trusova, the quad queen at age 15, has yet to do an official competition in her first senior season. She opens at this week’s Nepela Memorial Challenger Series event in Slovakia after having landed three quads in the free skate at the Russian Federation’s test skates in early September.

And we haven’t even talked about those women cleanly landing triple Axels, like Liu, Rika Kihira, 17, of Japan and a woman of a certain age, Elizaveta Tuktamysheva, 22, of Russia. Never before have so many women been routinely trying – and succeeding at – that three-and-a-half-revolution jump.

“I think that seeing Kihira doing triple Axels and Trusova practicing quad Salchow at the Junior Grand Prix Final a few years ago was a wake-up call that ladies’ [skating] was changing fast,” said Sam Auxier, former U.S. Figure Skating president and an international judge.

“There had to be a breakout from the triple-triple high bar [in place] for so long. Alina Zagitova [the Russian who won the 2018 Olympics] beat it by putting all her jumps in the second half [bonus point area] of the free skate, but a rule change corrected that, so the next tech level breakout had to be triple Axel or quad. It was long overdue and now here in force.”

Zagitova won last season’s worlds without a quad or a triple Axel, owed in part to Kihira botching two of her three triple Axel attempts. And Zagitova’s triumph also came before Shcherbakova and Trusova moved up to seniors internationally. Both landed quads in finishing one-two at last season’s Russian Championships, well ahead of a Zagitova who stumbled into fifth place.

“With the number of young women doing these jumps now, it seems the days of winning with up to a triple Lutz are over,” said 1984 Olympic champion Scott Hamilton, a longtime TV commentator.

“I am sure this is the year the quad becomes a real talking point in women’s singles,” four-time world champion Kurt Browning of Canada said.

While the four-revolution jump may dominate conversation, it likely will be a while before quads become the dominant piece of women’s skating. It took more than a decade after Browning was credited with having landed the first quad, at the 1988 World Championships, for it to become relatively common in men’s skating and nearly two decades more before they became both absolutely necessary and decisive.

The International Skating Union did not allow quads in the men’s short program until the 1998-99 season. It was not until after the 2014 Olympics that the quad revolution fully conquered men’s skating to the point that two quads in the short program and three (or more) in the free skate are the norm among the top skaters.

Women cannot do quads in the short – not yet and almost certainly not until at least after the 2022 Winter Olympics. And there still are only a relative handful of women trying them at the junior or senior level.

“I don’t think it [quads in women’s skating] warrants the word ‘overwhelming,’ but it is reshaping the sport to be sure,” Browning said.

U.S. coach Tom Zakrajsek has long been known for his expertise in teaching jumps. In 2011, one of his skaters, Brandon Mroz, landed the first ratified quad Lutz. Zakrajsek does not think quads will be commonplace in women’s skating for a while.

“It takes a lot of work to learn a complex jump like a triple Axel or a quad,” he said. “There are certain bodies and minds that will want to do quads. These are the special minds that can handle the grueling learning process of those jumps.”

Yet it is still surprising that it has taken so long for both quads and triple Axels to become a significant part of women’s skating.

“I thought Midori Ito [the Japanese skater credited with the first women’s triple Axel in 1988] would be the one to bring in all this, but it seemed to stall over the next seven Olympic cycles,” Hamilton said.

What sparked it now among the women?

“Many things,” said 1984 Olympic pairs’ champion and coach Oleg Vasiliev of Russia. “Knowledge of quad technique from watching the men. The new judging system. And the growing interest for figure skating in Russia.”

Coaches now teach skaters to begin rotating a jump as soon as they leave the ice. The old 6.0 judging and scoring system did not place high – and numerically defined – value on individual elements the way the current system does.

“In terms of the gaps between achievements, it has to do with ISU rules at the time that were not favorable for skaters to take those risks,” Zakrajsek said. “The ISU corrected that after the 2010 Olympics.”

The boom in Russian skating has been led by one coach, Eteri Tutberidze, who created an assembly line for jumping tyros in Moscow. Tutberidze coaches Trusova, Shcherbakova and Valieva – as well as Zagitova and, until last season, Medvedeva.

Alina Zagitova and Yevgenia Medvedeva earned gold and silver under coach Eteri Tutberidze at the Olympics. (AP)

“You have Eteri, who is a technically brilliant coach, teaching a certain technique conducive to having those girls rotate four times in the air on literally any type of takeoff,” Lipinski said. “You have an environment that is so competitive I can’t even imagine what it is like to be in it.

“The first day a junior skater in Russia did a quad toe and then another did a quad Lutz, it changed the game forever. The leap that has been made in juniors over the last two years, especially in Russia, has been mind-blowing.”

Some dispute whether the revolution is more illusion than reality. They post videos and engage in ad nauseam debates over whether credit is being given for jumps that are under rotated or, the critics’ favorite bête noire, pre-rotated, which means starting the rotation before takeoff.

While the phrase pre-rotation does not appear in any ISU document related to judging, officials say it is considered, with the appropriate penalties for less than full rotation applied. The problem is that slow-motion review is available only for jump landings, not takeoffs, so conclusive pre-rotation evidence is harder to find. The whole question often boils down to misunderstanding jump technique and not being able to pinpoint the moment when a jumper’s weight no longer is on the feet.

On top of that, reviews are based on just one camera angle and must be completed within the constraints of a TV schedule that restricts the time allowed for reviews. In senior events, the entire process of review, scoring and announcing scores must be done in three minutes, 20 seconds.

In the NFL, by comparison, there are multiple cameras (the NFL would not specify how many; it depends on the broadcaster). Reviews can drag on for five minutes – and more.

Ironically, it is the trailblazing Liu – the youngest U.S. senior champion in history, the first U.S. woman to land a quad, the first to land two triple Axels in a program and the most exciting U.S. women’s skating prospect since Lipinski and Michelle Kwan 25 years ago – who has become the naysayers’ favorite “it wasn’t rotated/it was pre-rotated” target.

A forum comment on the GoldenSkate.com summed up the overheated situation with incisive sarcasm:

“To me, it is painfully obvious that Alysa is a Martian who has come to Earth to destroy the planet. While we’re at it, I think she’s the one behind climate change. I hear that whenever Alysa pre-rotates or under-rotates a quad, the global temperature rises by 1 degree Celsius.”

Liu, by the way, competes this weekend at her second Junior Grand Prix event, the Baltic Cup in Gdansk, Poland. She won her first, in Lake Placid, N.Y., with a clean quad Lutz and clean triple Axel in the free skate.

If quads seem to be the shape of women’s skating for years to come, some wonder if it will lead to a sport where all the champions have a similar shape: lean and light.

“Very skinny young girls will represent women’s figure skating from today until forever,” venerable Russian coach Alexei Mishin said. “Age isn’t the only reason. The size of the body is what matters. Skinny girls have the smallest amount of inertia around the long axis of the body, so they are able to get the highest speed of rotation.”

Rafael Arutunian, coach of quad history-maker and two-time world champion Nathan Chen, says that the very things that allow young girls to master quads are creating a bandwagon with wheels that he thinks are likely to come off. He is worried that pressure to push the sport technically is leading people to rush blindly into the future with no body of evidence about the impact, literal and figurative, of barrier-breaking jumps on young bodies.

“I want to see what happens next to these girls,” Arutunian said. “Will they still land these jumps at age 18 or 19? They are doing these jumps with bodies that have not developed yet, with bones that are still growing. What will they be at age 40? Will they all need new hips?

“Maybe a doctor or physiotherapist should speak up before a disaster happens.”

Arutunian has called for raising the minimum age to compete in seniors from 15 to 18. Of course, even that would not prevent younger girls from trying quads. But he contends that they would be less inclined to pound their bodies to learn jumps that the body changes of womanhood might render impossible when they became seniors at an older age.

“It won’t be that these girls hit a certain age and just can’t do anything,” Lipinski said. “But every skater does have a time period where you have to figure out how to balance changing weight distribution and how to skate in your new body. These girls are starting so young it may be actually easier for them to keep the jumps.”

Auxier sees the possibility of a sport in which female skaters without a quad or triple Axel will not be able to rely on component scores and other triples to overcome the big jumpers’ big tech scores. He already has seen much more emphasis at lower levels on athleticism over artistry, with a lot of work on things like rotation speed.

“It may spur development of artistic events to provide an alternative channel for all but very best jumpers,” Auxier said.

For all his concerns about creating cookie-cutter champions, Mishin knows there is no way to arrest the sport’s jumping progress.

“It is possible to forbid triple Axels and quads, but that is ridiculous,” Mishin said.

Hamilton and Vasiliev each independently answered the question of whether the technical revolution is good for the sport with the Latin motto of the Olympics: “Citius, Altius, Fortius.” It translates to “Faster, Higher, Stronger,” and it refers to the constant quest in sport for pushing the envelope of human physical achievement.

“This is the natural progression and evolution of our sport,” Hamilton said. “Exciting times we live in.”

Revolutionary times.

Philip Hersh, who has covered figure skating at the last 11 Winter Olympics, is a special contributor to NBCSports.com/figure-skating.

MORE: Keegan Messing ‘glad’ to have held Japanese flag for Yuzuru Hanyu

As a reminder, you can watch the events from the 2019-20 figure skating season live and on-demand with the ‘Figure Skating Pass’ on NBC Sports Gold. Go to NBCsports.com/gold/figure-skating to sign up for access to every ISU Grand Prix and championship event, as well as domestic U.S. Figure Skating events throughout the season. NBC Sports Gold gives subscribers an unprecedented level of access on more platforms and devices than ever before.

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